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Suggested Citation:"Executive Summary." National Research Council. 1998. Manufacturing Process Controls for the Industries of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6258.


Executive Summary

Manufacturing process controls include all systems and software that exert control over production processes. Control systems include process sensors, data processing equipment, actuators, networks to connect equipment, and algorithms to relate process variables to product attributes.

Since 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology 's (OIT) program management strategy has reflected its commitment to increasing and documenting the commercial impact of OIT programs. OIT's management strategy for research and development has been in transition from a “technology push” strategy to a “market pull” strategy based on the needs of seven energy-and waste-intensive industries—steel, forest products, glass, metal casting, aluminum, chemicals, and petroleum refining. These industries, designated as Industries of the Future (IOF), are the focus of OIT programs. In 1997, agriculture, specifically renewable bioproducts, was added to the IOF group.

The National Research Council Panel on Manufacturing Process Controls is part of the Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments (CITA), which was established to evaluate the OIT program strategy, to provide guidance during the transition to the new IOF strategy, and to assess the effects of the change in program strategy on cross-cutting technology programs, that is, technologies applicable to several of the IOF industries. The panel was established to identify key processes and needs for improved manufacturing control technology, especially the needs common to several IOF industries; identify specific research opportunities for addressing these common industry needs; suggest criteria for identifying and prioritizing research and development (R&D) to improve manufacturing controls technologies; and recommend means for implementing advances in control technologies. The panel 's responses to these tasks are described below.

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Suggested Citation:"Executive Summary." National Research Council. 1998. Manufacturing Process Controls for the Industries of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6258.


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The panel identified common industry needs for process sensing and manufacturing process controls (Chapter 3) based on key IOF process attributes, including (1) high processing volume and production rates, (2) large-batch or continuous processes, (3) commodity-grade products (low value per unit), (4) harsh processing environments,1 and (5) serial processing sequences (i.e., the output from one process becomes the feedstock for the next).

Common needs for process sensing include

  • measurement of temperature profiles in harsh processing environments

  • measurement of chemical composition/stoichiometry in harsh processing environments

  • measurement of physical attributes at high line speeds and high temperatures

  • monitoring of combustion processes

Common needs for process controls include

  • methodologies to enable in-situ-level process controls

  • optimization at the plant or enterprise level

  • open-architecture software tools

  • adaptive control systems

  • methods and diagnostic tools for condition-based maintenance of process equipment

To address all of these needs, the OIT program should include (1) a cross-cutting R&D initiative to develop fundamental technologies that address common IOF needs, (2) industry-specific R&D to validate and implement advances in technology, and (3) an interagency government initiative to coordinate plans and research objectives.


The panel recommends that OIT establish a cross-cutting R&D initiative to address the common needs of the IOF industries. Examples of specific research opportunities (Chapter 4) include (not prioritized)

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  • the development of sensor materials with significantly improved thermal and chemical resistance

  • the compilation of a comprehensive database of candidate sensor material properties to accelerate the design and development cycle for the fabrication of new sensor systems


A harsh processing environment has one or more of the following characteristics: high processing temperature (with respect to sensor and control capabilities), steep thermal gradients, corrosivity, erosivity, high particle content, combustion, or high processing speeds.

Page 3 Cite

Suggested Citation:"Executive Summary." National Research Council. 1998. Manufacturing Process Controls for the Industries of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6258.


  • the development of methods to measure temperatures accurately and reliably

  • the development of low-cost, miniaturized, integrated analytical instruments that directly and easily measure process chemistry for a wide range of process flow-streams and conditions, including harsh environments

  • the application of new processing science for the fabrication and packaging of integrated sensor/data processing/actuation modules

  • the development of measurement technologies for the rapid characterization and evaluation of physical properties for wide-sheet and web processes

  • the application of wireless telecommunications technology to advanced wireless sensors

  • the development of process control methodologies, including process measurements, intelligent control algorithms, and reliable process models, to enable the transition from environmental-level (energy transport) to in-situ-level (material behavior) controls

  • the development of techniques and control architectures for using multiple, disparate process models in a cohesive and integrated way

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  • the development of technology for process optimization and the plant-wide integration of process controls

  • the evaluation of open-architecture control systems for large-batch and continuous processes typical of IOF industries

  • the development and implementation of machine learning and adaptive controls


The panel recommends that OIT focus its research on the development of process sensors and control technologies that address the needs of the IOF industries. In addition to the common IOF needs, the organizational objectives of DOE and OIT—to reduce the consumption of raw materials and energy, to increase labor and capital productivity, and to reduce waste—must be considered. The panel recommends the following criteria as a basis for comparing and selecting technologies for the cross-cutting program:

  • the potential for reducing the consumption of energy and raw materials and for reducing waste

  • consistency with the technology road maps of the IOF industries

  • potential cross-cutting benefits for more than one industrial sector (common needs and opportunities are described above)

  • the potential for commercial application

One of the key challenges for OIT is to manage the cross-cutting program in a way that facilitates the development of specific R& D performance goals based

Page 4 Cite

Suggested Citation:"Executive Summary." National Research Council. 1998. Manufacturing Process Controls for the Industries of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6258.


on the common needs of several industries. To identify and prioritize research that meets IOF's needs, the panel recommends that OIT take the following steps:

  • Establish an IOF coordination group to develop short-term and long-term goals and to monitor the progress and results of work on cross-cutting technologies. The group would review process attributes and control needs in each IOF industry and establish a consensus on specific goals for the most beneficial cross-cutting R&D.

  • Facilitate interaction between the researchers developing improved process control technologies and potential IOF users. These interactions could include technical progress reviews of cross-cutting R&D programs and technology workshops to discuss technical developments and identify opportunities for validating and implementing them.


The panel identified cross-cutting R&D that could benefit several industries without redundancy. However, the process development and implementation phases are unique to particular processes or conditions and could be best addressed by the interested IOF groups. Some industry-specific tasks are listed below:

  • the development of road maps to identify technology needs and implementation plans

  • interaction with cross-cutting technology programs (e.g., technical workshops and R&D progress reviews)

  • the development and validation of process models related to specific key processes that would facilitate moving from environment-level to in-situ-level control schemes

  • the development of actuators to control specific key process variables

  • the optimization of process control systems, especially using supervisory controllers and plantwide integration

  • the validation and implementation of improved sensor technologies and process control systems in large-scale processes

Finally, the panel recommends that OIT program managers continue to coordinate interagency and intra-agency progress and plans in complementary technologies to avoid duplications. In addition to monitoring complementary programs, the panel recommends that OIT collaborate with four other organizations. The first is the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which is developing standards for open-architecture systems; IOF industries should evaluate and validate system standards for large-batch and continuous operations. The second is the National Science Foundation, which is sponsoring research centers to develop improved process sensing and process modeling capabilities (e.g., the

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Page 5 Cite

Suggested Citation:"Executive Summary." National Research Council. 1998. Manufacturing Process Controls for the Industries of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6258.


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Measurement and Control Engineering Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville; the Center for Process Analytical Chemistry at the University of Washington; and the Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements at Ohio State University); IOF industries should coordinate the implementation and application of process modeling and advanced sensor technology. The third is the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), especially the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which is developing microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices, fabrication processes, and applications; IOF industries should evaluate MEMS devices for sensing/control of industrial processes. Finally, OIT should collaborate with DOD programs (especially Army, Navy, and DARPA), which are developing condition-based maintenance approaches; IOF industries should evaluate sensors and diagnostics developed to monitor processing equipment and machinery.


What are process controls in manufacturing? ›

Process control is a set of procedures designed to ensure that processes within a manufacturing plant are carried out correctly and that the desired output will be achieved.

What are 5 steps of manufacturing process? ›

Steps of the Manufacturing Process
  • Develop the Product Vision. The product vision is the seed the finished goods will grow from. ...
  • Research the Vision. ...
  • Design the Product. ...
  • Finalize the Design. ...
  • Test the Prototype. ...
  • Manufacture the Product. ...
  • Get Feedback and Do More Testing. ...
  • Official Release.
May 11, 2022

What are three 3 types of controls used in the control processes? ›

Output controls involve measurable results. Behavioural controls involve regulating activities rather than outcomes. Clan control relies on a set of shared values, expectations, traditions, and norms.

What are the 5 control processes? ›

The control function can be viewed as a five-step process: (1) establish standards, (2) measure performance, (3) compare actual performance with standards and identify any deviations, (4) determine the reason for deviations, and (5) take corrective action if needed.

What are the 7 flows of manufacturing? ›

Understand and Implement the 7 Flows of Manufacturing
  • The flow of raw material.
  • The flow of work-in-process.
  • The flow of finished goods.
  • The flow of operators.
  • The flow of machines.
  • The flow of information.
  • The flow of engineering.

What are the 3 types of processes in manufacturing operations? ›

The five types of manufacturing processes
  • Repetitive manufacturing.
  • Discrete manufacturing.
  • Job shop manufacturing.
  • Process manufacturing (continuous)
  • Process manufacturing (batch)

What are the 3 types of manufacturing? ›

Three key types of manufacturing are make to stock (MTS), make to order (MTO) and make to assemble (MTA).

What is an example of a manufacturing process? ›

Beer brewing is one example of process manufacturing in the food and beverage industry. Key ingredients in beer making include grains, malt, hops, yeast and sugar; various recipes are available to guide the process.

What are the five elements of manufacturing? ›

The 5 Key Elements To Goods Manufacturing Practices
  • Products And Primary Materials. Perhaps the most important element of pharmaceutical production is that of products and primary materials. ...
  • Premises And Equipment. Laboratories must maintain uniform premises and equipment. ...
  • People. ...
  • Procedures. ...
  • Processes.

What is the difference between production and manufacturing? ›

You can think of manufacturing as turning specific raw materials into specific products, including the creation of utility. In contrast, production refers to a much wider range of activities necessary to get raw materials into a state where they can be manufactured.

What is manufacturing in simple words? ›

Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw materials into finished goods through the use of tools, machines, and labor. It is a vital part of the global economy, and is responsible for the production of many of the products that make life easier and more enjoyable.

What are the 3 most common internal controls? ›

Internal controls fall into three broad categories: detective, preventative, and corrective.

What are the 4 levels of organizational control? ›

Organizational control typically involves four steps: (1) establish standards, (2) measure performance, (3) compare performance to standards, and then (4) take corrective action as needed.

Which type of control is future oriented? ›

Future-oriented controls: These are also recognized as feed-forward controls or steering controls. These controls are intended to assess results during the process, so that action can be taken before the task is completed or the period is over.

What are the 5 C's of control? ›

The 5Cs framework is represented by the skills and qualities of Commitment, Communication, Concentration, Control and Confidence.

What are the 4 most important parts of the control system? ›

It is made up of three main components: a sensor, a controller, and an actuator. The sensor detects a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, or position and converts it into an electrical signal. The controller processes this signal and generates an output signal that is used to control the actuator.

What are the six methods of control? ›

6 Easy Tools and Techniques of Control In Organization
  • #1 Personal Control.
  • #2 Bureaucratic Control.
  • #3 Output Control.
  • #4 Cultural Control.
  • #5 Control Through Incentives.
  • #6 Market Control.
Feb 22, 2021

What are the 4 Ms of manufacturing? ›

By implementing best practices that address the 4Ms of Machines, Manpower, Methods, and Material.

What is manufacturing process flow diagram? ›

A manufacturing process flow diagram is an extensively used optimization tool used to improve processes and eliminate delays. This type of diagram illustrates the movement of goods from the time the raw materials arrive at the facility to the delivery to the end user.

What is a good flow in a process? ›

One of the 14 principles of Lean thinking, “flow” refers to the manner in which work progresses through a system. “Good” flow describes a system where work moves through steadily and predictably, whereas “bad” flow describes a system where work stops and starts frequently.

What are the 8 steps in production process? ›

To create and sell a new product, businesses typically follow these eight stages:
  • Generate an idea. ...
  • Research your idea. ...
  • Plan out the product. ...
  • Create a prototype. ...
  • Establish a production process. ...
  • Calculate your costs. ...
  • Determine a distribution plan. ...
  • Launch the product.
Dec 19, 2022

What is the production system model? ›

A "production system " (or "production rule system") is a computer program typically used to provide some form of artificial intelligence, which consists primarily of a set of rules about behavior but it also includes the mechanism necessary to follow those rules as the system responds to states of the world.

What is the modern manufacturing system? ›

In a modern manufacturing workplace, employees work as teams to solve problems and produce high-quality goods. They imagine ideas together, and later bring them to reality using technology like digital blueprints and design software.

Why is manufacturing important? ›

It is essential to other industries, like healthcare, in supplying vital technology and equipment. Without manufacturers, we would not have the assets, the advancements, or the solidity that we do today. Due to its level of importance within the U.S. economy, manufacturers must be effective in meeting their goals.

What are the 3 major decisions of production and operations management? ›

Production and operations management involve three main types of decisions, typically made at three different stages:
  • Production planning. The first decisions facing operations managers come at the planning stage. ...
  • Production control. ...
  • Improving production and operations.
Sep 19, 2018

What are the production techniques in manufacturing? ›

Three common types of manufacturing production processes are: make to stock (MTS), make to order (MTO), and make to assemble (MTA). Such strategies have advantages and disadvantages in labor costs, inventory control, overhead, customization, and the speed of production and filling orders.

What is the most important part of production process? ›


The planning component of production scheduling is by far the most important. This component pertains to deciding what will be done in the future.

What is the most important element in manufacturing? ›

Material is the first and most important element of cost. In most of the manufacturing organisations, materials form the single largest component of cost. The term material simply means any commodity or substance which is processed in a factory in order to be converted into finished product.

What are lean principles in manufacturing? ›

The five core principles of lean manufacturing are defined as value, the value stream, flow, pull and perfection. These are now used as the basis to implement lean.

What is the role of a production manager? ›

Production Managers are responsible for allocating labor resources, tracking production schedules and cost adjustments to ensure everything runs smoothly. They make receiving raw materials or shipping final goods happen as efficiently as possible.

What is production vs productivity in manufacturing? ›

Production is defined as the process of producing goods from raw materials. On the other hand, productivity is defined as the process of producing goods and services efficiently.

What does manufacturing industry mean? ›

The manufacturing industries are industries transforming goods, that is, mainly manufacturing industries in their own right, but they also concern the repair and installation of industrial equipment and subcontracting operations for third parties.

What is manufacturing in one word? ›

Manufacturing means "making" or "building," but it's most often used to refer to an automated process of putting something together from parts. For example, your uncle might work in automobile manufacturing — in other words, at a car factory.

What is manufacturing in one sentence? ›

A manufacturing company converts raw materials into finished goods. Manufacturing is the business of making things in factories.

What is one word for manufacturing process? ›

manufacturing process: method of working; working method; operation procedure; procedure; mode of operation; method; manufacturing process; routine; system; production process.

What are examples of process control? ›

An example of a basic process control system is a thermostat, a heating element, and a cooling element within a room. As the temperature in the room fluctuates beyond set boundaries, the thermostat turns on either the heating or cooling system to keep the room at a specific temperature.

What are basic process controls? ›

System which responds to input signals from the process, associated equipment, and/or an operator and generates output signals causing the process and its associated equipment to operate in the desired way.

What are the 4 elements of process control? ›

-Thus, a process control system consists of four essential elements: process, measurement, evaluation, and control.

What do process controls include? ›

Process controls include procedures, practices, and processes to ensure the control of parameters during operations such as heat processing, acidifying, irradiating, and refrigerating foods.

What is the most common type of process control? ›

Two typical forms of process control systems are single input – single output (SISO) and multiple-input – multiple-output (MIMO).

What is an example of process control in industry? ›

Process control is the ability to monitor and adjust a process to give a desired output. It is used in industry to maintain quality and improve performance. An example of a simple process that is controlled is keeping the temperature of a room at a certain temperature using a heater and a thermostat.

What industries use process control? ›

It is implemented widely in industries such as automotive, mining, dredging, oil refining, pulp and paper manufacturing, chemical processing and power generating plants.

What are the 3 objectives of process control? ›

The objectives of process control are generally either to maintain a process at a desired, constant operating condition (temperature, pressure, composition, etc.) in the face of disturbances or, less typically in conventional process applications, to force it to follow a desired trajectory with time.

Why is process control important? ›

Process control systems make sure industrial processes are carried out efficiently, consistently and with as little variation as possible. They're installed in industrial settings to: help maintain throughput, quality, yield and energy efficiency. make sure working practices are carried out safely and profitably.

What are the most important parts of the control system? ›

It is made up of three main components: a sensor, a controller, and an actuator. The sensor detects a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, or position and converts it into an electrical signal. The controller processes this signal and generates an output signal that is used to control the actuator.

How do you implement process control? ›

Here is a quick guide to implementing and using process control charts.
  1. Step 1: Select Measurement Method. ...
  2. Step 2: Validate the Accuracy of the Measurement System. ...
  3. Step 3: Determine Where Data will be Stored. ...
  4. Step 4: Begin Collecting Data. ...
  5. Step 5: Craft and Document the Reaction Plan. ...
  6. Step 6: Calculate Control Limits.
Sep 29, 2017

What is an example of a process vs control? ›

Processes are the actions performed by accounting personnel that are not controls. For example, a cashier receives payments. Controls, on the other hand, are the actions that ensure safety and accuracy. For example, the cashier might restrictively endorse a check For Deposit Only and create a receipt.


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